Rāṣṭram — Chandas & Harappa Script संस्कृति, culture & प्रकृति, civilization

Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/jmwrgxj

The idea of rāṣṭram which merges Cosmic Principle and Material Reality is outlined in the context of two works announced in this monograph.

Harappa Script hieroglyphs 1. echo chandas metaphors of 8th millennium BCE 2. data archive अर्थ artha, ‘wealth’ of Rāṣṭram, from 4th millennium BCE. One example is provided by the metaphor of varāha in chandas which is a hieroglyph rendered rebus (vikalpa) in Harappa Script Meluhha cipher.

Culture is a pattern of behaviour, civilization is a material expression.

In a time dimension, Harappa Script of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization is प्रकृति ‘material expression’ of संस्कृति, ‘Veda culture continuum’. [प्रकृति is original or primary substance; in the सांख्य phil.) the original producer of (or rather passive power of creating) the material world (consisting of 3 constituent essences or गुणs called सत्त्व , रजस् and तमस्) , Nature (distinguished from पुरुष , Spirit as माया is distinguished from ब्रह्मन् in the वेदान्तs).संस्कृति is f. making ready , preparation , perfection VS. &c; hallowing , consecration BhP.; determination, effort.] 

In a space dimension, the culture and civilization are evidenced respectively, 1. in the ancient texts of Veda and 2. in Eurasia along the Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel).

The roots of संस्कृति, Veda culture (exemplified by rāṣṭram) and प्रकृति, Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization (exemplified by Harappa Script) are traceable to 8th millennium BCE.

The common link is seen in the stunning depictions of Varaha as personification of Veda, in chandas tradition from 8th m. BCE.

The depictions continue in Harappa Script tradition of the Bronze Age Tin-Bronze Revolution from 4th m. BCE.

Varaha anthropomorph is an expression as Veda Puruṣa पुरुष, the very embodiment of Veda.

Puruṣa पुरुष is ‘the cosmic Being or Self, Consciousness, and Universal principle.’ This is a principle which creates all life and explains creation. The principle is a combination of material reality (Prakriti) and non-material, inexorable dharma-dhamma –aksara अक्षर  ‘non-changing’

Splendid and without a bodily form is this Puruṣa पुरुष , without and within, unborn, without life breath and without mind, higher than the supreme element. From him are born life breath and mind. He is the soul of all beings.— Munduka Upanishad

The limbs of the Veda, vedanga, according to this Upanishad are:

  1. Siksha (Phonetics)  :  http://is1.mum.edu/vedicreserve/shiksha.htm

  2. Vyakaranam (Grammar)

  3. Chandas (Metre)

  4. Nirukta (Etymyology)

  5. Jyotisha (Astronomy)

  6. Kalpa (Rituals and Mathematics) (Note: With the Harappa Script cipher we can add one more art&science discipline to complement language studies, mlecchita vikalpa, cryptography or hieroglyphic writing system. mleccha, milakkhu also mean ‘copper’. Meluhha  (aka mleccha) is defined as parole (lingua franca or spoken forms of language) of Bharata sprachbund, language union).

Harappa Script manifests the material reality (Prakriti). Veda manifests the non-material (Samskriti) cosmic principle of order called dharma-dhamma.

The common link  is seen over 10 millennia years of story of civilization of Eurasia, in अर्थ  in a tripartite structure of metaphors, which uses synonyms: resources which yield wealth, products as wealth and knowledge systems as wealth.

Metaphors of chandas (language of the Veda) find their echoes in the rebus Meluhha (spoken forms lingua franca or parole) renderings on Harappa Script cipher to data archive metalwork catalogues.

anthro3Only one hieroglyph is incised as an inscription text on Sheorajpur anthropomorph of ram’s horns with spread legs. Together with the fish-fins, this hypertext is a mleccha rebus rendering of the plain text: meḍ aya kammaṭa karṇaka ‘iron (metal) mint merchant, helmsman’

ayo meḍh ‘metal merchant’ ayo mēdhā ‘metal expert’

PLUS कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx ,133 rebus: karṇika कर्णिक ‘steersman’.

Note: mēdhā also has the semantics of: ‘dhanam, wealth and yajna’. An allograph: M. mẽḍhā m. ʻ crook or curved end (of a horn, stick, &c.) ʼ with the same cipher rendering of plain text occurs on ancient punch-marked coins which use symbols in Harappa Script metalwork tradition.

Medha = nipuṇa, pravīṇa, abhijña, vijña, niṣṇāta, śikṣita, vaijñānika, kṛtamukha, kṛtin, kuśala, saṅkhyāvat, matimat, kuśagrīyamati, kṛṣṭi, vidura, budha, dakṣa, nediṣṭha, kṛtadhī, sudhin, vidvas, kṛtakarman, vicakṣaṇa, vidagdha, catura, prauḍha, boddhṛ, viśārada, sumedhas, sumati, tīkṣṇa, prekṣāvat, vibudha, vidan, vijñānika, kuśalin   yaḥ prakarṣeṇa kāryakṣamaḥ asti।arjunaḥ dhanurvidyāyāṃ nipuṇaḥ āsīt।

मेधा f. mental vigour or power , intelligence , prudence , wisdom (pl. products of intelligence , thoughts , opinions) RV. &c Intelligence personified (esp. as the wife of धर्म and daughter of दक्ष) MBh. R. Hariv. Pur. மேதை¹ mētai , n. < mēdhā. 1. Supreme intelligence, powerful intellect; பேரறிவு. 2. Greatness; மேன்மை. (சூடா.) 3. Person of supreme intelligence; பேரறிவாளி. (சிறுபஞ். 22.)

Medhasa (adj.) [=Vedic medhas, as a — base] having wisdom or intelligence, wise, only in cpds. bhūri˚ of great wisdom Sn 1131; & su˚ [Ved. sumedhas] very wise Vv 222 (=sundara — pañña VvA 111); Pv iii.77 Medhāvin (adj.) [medhā+in=*medhāyin>medhāvin; already Vedic, cp. medhasa] intelligent, wise, often combd with paṇḍita & bahussuta: D i.120; S iv.375; Aiv.244; Vin iv.10, 13, 141; Sn 323 (acc. medhāvinaŋ +bahussutaŋ) 627, 1008 (Ep. of Mogharājā), 1125 (id.); Nd2 259 (s. v. jātimā, with var. other synonyms); Dh 36; J vi.294; Miln 21; DhA i.257; ii.108; iv.169; VvA 131; PvA 41.Medhā (f.) [Vedic medhā & medhas, perhaps to Gr. maq˚ in manqa/nw (“mathematics”)] wisdom, intelligence, sagacity Nd1 s. v. (m. vuccati paññā); Pug 25; Dhs 16, DhsA 148; PvA 40 (=paññā). — adj. sumedha wise, clever, intelligent Sn 177; opp. dum˚ stupid Pv i.82. — khīṇa — medha one whose intelligence has been impaired, stupefied J vi.295 (=khīṇa — pañña).(Pali)

Hieroglyph: So. ayo `fish’. Go. ayu `fish’. Go <ayu> (Z), <ayu?u> (Z),, <ayu?> (A) {N} “^fish”. Kh. kaDOG `fish’. Sa. Hako `fish’. Mu. hai (H) ~ haku(N) ~ haikO(M) `fish’. Ho haku `fish’. Bj. hai `fish’. Bh.haku `fish’. KW haiku ~ hakO |Analyzed hai-kO, ha-kO (RDM). Ku. Kaku`fish’.@(V064,M106) Mu. ha-i, haku `fish’ (HJP). @(V341) ayu>(Z), <ayu?u> (Z)  <ayu?>(A) {N} “^fish”. #1370. <yO>\\<AyO>(L) {N} “^fish”. #3612. <kukkulEyO>, <kukkuli-yO>(LMD) {N} “prawn”. !Serango dialect. #32612. <sArjAjyO>,,<sArjAj>(D) {N} “prawn”. #32622. <magur-yO>(ZL) {N} “a kind of ^fish”. *Or.<>. #32632. <ur+GOl-Da-yO>(LL) {N} “a kind of ^fish”. #32642<bal.bal-yO>(DL) {N} “smoked fish”. #15163. (Munda Etyma)

Rebus: Ayo & Aya (nt.) [Sk. ayaḥ nt. iron & ore, Idg. *ajes — , cp. Av. ayah, Lat. aes, Goth. aiz, Ohg. ēr (= Ger. Erz.), Ags. ār (= E. ore).] iron. The nom. ayo found only in set of 5 metals forming an alloy of gold (jātarūpa), viz. ayo,loha (copper), tipu (tin), sīsa (lead), sajjha (silver) A iii.16 = S v.92; of obl. cases only the instr. ayasāoccurs Dh 240 (= ayato DhA iii.344); Pv i.1013 (paṭikujjita, of Niraya). — Iron is the material used kat)e)coxh/n in the outfit & construction of Purgatory or Niraya (see niraya & Avīci & cp. Vism 56 sq.). — In compn. both ayo˚ & aya˚ occur as bases. I. ayo˚: — kapāla an iron pot A iv.70 (v. l. ˚guhala); Nd2 304 iii. d 2 (of Niraya). — kūṭa an iron hammer PvA 284. — khīla an iron stake S v.444; M iii.183 = Nd2304 iii. c; SnA 479. — guḷa an iron ball S v.283; Dh 308; It 43 = 90; Th 2, 489; DA i.84. — ghana an iron club Ud 93; VvA 20. — ghara an iron house J iv.492. — paṭala an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) PvA 52. — pākāra an iron fence Pv i.1013 = Nd2 304 iii. d 1. — maya made of iron Sn 669 (kūṭa); J iv.492 (nāvā); Pvi.1014 (bhūmi of N.); PvA 43, 52. — muggara an iron club PvA 55. — sanku an iron spike S iv.168; Sn 667.  II. aya˚: — kapāla = ayo˚ DhA i.148 (v. l. ayo˚). -kāra a worker in iron Miln 331. — kūṭa = ayo˚ J i.108; DhA ii.69 (v. l.). — nangala an iron plough DhA i.223;iii.67. — paṭṭaka an iron plate or sheet (cp. loha˚) J v.359. — paṭhavi an iron floor (of Avīci) DhA i.148. — sanghāṭaka an iron (door) post DhA iv.104. — sūla an iron stake Sn 667; DhA i.148.(Pali)

barāh, baḍhi ‘boar’ vāḍhī, bari, barea ‘merchant’ bārakaśa ‘seafaring vessel’

anthropomorphvarahaAnthropomorph, Varaha. Harappa Script

A composite copper anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by Dr. Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting a Varāha ‘boar’ head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period.

Hieroglyph: mẽḍhā ‘curved horn’, miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep; mē̃ḍh ‘ram’ Rebus: Медь [Med’] (Russian, Slavic) ‘copper’.

मृदु, मृदा–कर ‘iron, thunderbolt’  मृदु mṛdu ‘a kind of iron’ मृदु-कार्ष्णायसम्,-कृष्णायसम् soft-iron, lead.

Santali glosses.

Sa. <i>mE~R~hE~’d</i> `iron’.  ! <i>mE~RhE~d</i>(M).

Ma. <i>mErhE’d</i> `iron’.

Mu. <i>mERE’d</i> `iron’.

  ~ <i>mE~R~E~’d</i> `iron’.  ! <i>mENhEd</i>(M).

Ho <i>meD</i> `iron’.

Bj. <i>merhd</i>(Hunter) `iron’.

KW <i>mENhEd</i>



— Slavic glosses for ‘copper’

Мед [Med]Bulgarian

Bakar Bosnian

Медзь [medz’]Belarusian

Měď Czech

Bakar Croatian


Бакар [Bakar]Macedonian

Miedź Polish

Медь [Med’]Russian

Meď Slovak


Бакар [Bakar]Serbian

Мідь [mid’] Ukrainian[unquote]


Miedź, med’ (Northern Slavic, Altaic) ‘copper’.
One suggestion is that corruptions from the German “Schmied”, “Geschmeide” = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.

ayo meḍh ‘metal merchant’ ayo mēdhā ‘metal expert’

PLUS  karṇika ‘spread legs’ rebus: karṇika कर्णिक ‘steersman’.

barāh, baḍhi ‘boar’ vāḍhī, bari, barea ‘merchant’ bārakaśa ‘seafaring vessel’.

eka-shingi ‘one-masted’ koḍiya, khondā   ‘young bull’, koṭiya ‘dhow’, kũdār ‘turner, brass-worker’ kunda ‘fine gold’. Thus, the anthropomorph signifies a steersman/helmsman, metals expert, metals turner (brass worker, goldsmith), metals merchant with a dhow, seafaring vessel.

Normally, the one-horned young bull is associated with hypertext of ‘lathe PLUS brazier’. Sheorajpur where this anthropomorph was discovered is on the banks of Ganga in Kanpur District. An ancient temple in the village is Kereshwar Mandir. The Sheorajpur anthropomorph is a धम्म र्संज्ञा dhamma saṁjñā ‘duty signifier’ — like a calling card proclaiming his or her professional expertese in metal work and responsibility as a steersman of a cargo boat — sangaDa ‘double-canoe, catamaran, seafaring vessel’. The combination of animal parts (by inscribing a ‘fish’ hieroglyph on the chest of the ‘ram, curved horn’ anthropomorph) is sangaDa rebus: sangaDa ‘double-canoe’. A rebus reading may also signify Vajra samghAta ‘adamantine glue’ or metallic calx.

Image result for varahaVaraha and Bhumi, Badami

feetofbhudevi.JPGImage result for udaya giri adi varahaVaraha & Bhudevi (feet), Khajuraho; Varaha & Bhudevi Udayagiri caves

Image result for varaha sarasvati

Varaha and Sarasvati, Khajuraho

Image result for udaya giri adi varahaCoin with Varaha (Vishnu Avatar) on a Gurjara-Pratihara coin 850-900 CE, British Museum.


पृथिवी,  अग्नि

 havir yajna, pAka yajna


लक्ष्मी, द्रव्य, श्री

 Soma yajna


भारती,  वाक्

 AtmA is devatA, RishikA is वाच् आम्भृणी

Image result for gadyanaImage result for gadyanaKadambas of Hangal, Gold Gadyana in the name of Nakareshwara, the patron deity of Bankapur (1100-1200 CE), MCSI-I 225, 4.22g. Gadyana, வராகன்¹ varākaṉ n. < Varāha. 1. Viṣṇu, in His boar-incarnation; வராகரூபியான திருமால். (பிங்.) 2. Pagoda, a gold coin = 3½ rupees, as bearing the image of a boar; மூன்றரை ரூபாய் மதிப்ுள்ளதும் பன்றிமுத்திரை கொண்டதுமான ஒரு வகைப் பொன்நாணயம். (அரு. நி.)

अध्य्-ात्म  [p= 23,2] n. the supreme essence. AtmA is the devatA of RV 10.125; Soma —atma yajnasya (RV 9.2.10)

इला [p= 168,2] f. (closely connected with /इडा and /इरा , qq.v.) flow; speech; the earth , &c; » इडा. ऐल [p= 234,3] n. plenty or abundance of food or refreshment;इड [p= 164,2] m. N. of अग्नि (who is to be addressed with prayers , or invoked with the stream of flow of praise) VS. ii , 3; इलावृत n. one of the nine वर्षs or divisions of the known world (comprehending the highest and most central part of the old continent , cf. वर्ष) MBh. BhP. Ma1rkP. VP. &c; Pulastya was one of saptarishis, one of ten Prajapatis, mind-born sons of Brahma.Vishrava was the son of Pulastya; Vishrava’s wife was Ilavida or Ilavila. The son of this union was Ailavida or Ailabila. Ailabila performed austerities and became Kubera, the lord of riches.

भूमि a [p= 763,1] f. (Ved. also nom. भ्/ऊमी gen. abl. °म्यास् loc. °म्याम्) the earth , soil , ground RV. &c

मही 1 [p= 803,2] f. (cf. 2. म्/अह्) , ” the great world ” , the earth (cf. उर्वी , पृथिवी) RV. &c &c (in later language also = ground , soil , land , country); du. heaven and earth RV. i , 80 , 11 ; 159 , 1 &c ( Naigh. iii , 30); pl. waters , streams RV. ii.11 , 2;v , 45 , 3 &c

लक्ष्मी [p= 892,3] = द्रव्य L. f. (nom. /ईस् , rarely /ई ; also ifc. as mf. , but n(इ). ; cf. लक्ष्मीक) a mark , sign , token RV. x , 71 , 2 Nir. iv , 10; (but in the older language more usually with प्/उण्या) a good sign , good fortune , prosperity , success , happiness (also pl.) AV. &c; N. of the goddess of fortune and beauty (frequently in the later mythology identified with श्री and regarded as the wife of विष्णु or नारायण ; accord. to

  1. i , 45 , 40-43she sprang with other precious things from the foam of the ocean when churned by the gods and demons for the recovery of the अमृत q.v. ; she appeared with a lotus in her hand , whence she is also called पद्मा ; accord. to another legend she appeared at the creation floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus-flower , she is also variously regarded as a wife of सूर्य , as a wife of प्रजा-पति , as a wife of धर्म and mother of काम , as sister or mother of धातृ and विधातृ , as wife of दत्तत्रेय , as one of the 9 शक्तिs of विष्णु , as a manifestation of प्रकृति &c , as identified with दाक्षायणी in भरताश्रम , and with सीता , wife of राम , and with other women) ib. (cf. RTL. 103 ; 108 &c ); N. of various plants (Hibiscus Mutabilis ; Mimosa Suma ; turmeric ; a white तुलसी ; = ऋद्धि , वृद्धि , प्रियङ्गु , and फलिनी) L.

भारती N. of a deity (in RV. often invoked among the आप्री deities and esp. together with इला and सरस्वती accord. to Nir. viii , 13 a daughter of आदित्य ; later identified with सरस्वती , the goddess of speech) RV. &c; speech , voice , word , eloquence , literary composition , dramatic art or recitation MBh. Ka1v. &c

सरस्वती f. (of स्/अरस्वत् q.v. under स्/अरस्) a region abounding in pools and lakes MBh. i , 7745; N. of a river (celebrated in RV. and held to be a goddess whose identity is much disputed ; most authorities hold that the name सरस्वती is identical with the Avestan Haraquaiti river in Afghanistan , but that it usually means the Indus in the RV. , and only occasionally the small sacred rivers in मध्य-देश [see below] ; the river-goddess has seven sisters and is herself sevenfold , she is called the mother of streams , the best of mothers , of rivers , and of goddesses ; the ऋषिs always recognize the connection of the goddess with the river , and invoke her to descend from the sky , to bestow vitality , renown , and riches ; elsewhere she is described as moving along a golden path and as destroying वृत्र &c ; as a goddess she is often connected with other deities e.g. with पूषन् , इन्द्र , the मरुत्s and the अश्विन्s ; in the आप्री hymns she forms a triad with the sacrificial goddesses इडा and भारती ; accord. to a myth told in the VS. xix , 12 , सरस्वती through speech [वाचा] communicated vigour to इन्द्र ; in the ब्राह्मणs she is identified with वाच् , ” Speech ” , and in later times becomes goddess of eloquence » below) RV. &c; N. of a well-known small river (held very sacred by the Hindus ; identified with the modern Sursooty , and formerly marking with the दृषद्वती one of the boundaries of the region आर्य-देष and of the sacred district called ब्रह्मा*वर्त [see Mn. ii , 17] in RV. vii , 95 , 2, this river is represented as flowing into the sea , although later legends make it disappear underground and join the Ganges and Jumna at Allahabad ; » त्रि-वेणी , प्रयाग) ib.; speech or the power of speech , eloquence , learning wisdom MBh. Ka1v. &c; a cow VS. viii , 43

वाक् [p= 936,1] in comp. for वाच्. वाच् [p= 936,1] f. (fr. √ वच्) speech , voice , talk , language (also of animals) , sound (also of inanimate objects as of the stones used for pressing , of a drum &c ) RV. &c (वाचम्- √ऋ , ईर् , or इष् , to raise the voice , utter a sound , cry , call); Speech personified (in various manners or forms e.g. as वाच् आम्भृणी in RV. x , 125 ; as the voice of the middle sphere in Naigh. and Nir. ; in the वेद she is also represented as created by प्रजा-पति and married to him ; in other places she is called the mother of the वेदs and wife of इन्द्र ; in VP. she is the daughter of दक्ष and wife of कश्यप ; but most frequently she is identified with भारती or सरस्वती , the goddess of speech ; वाचः साम and वाचो व्रतम् N. of सामन्s A1rshBr.; वाचः स्तोमः , a partic. एका*ह S3rS. )

अर्थ [p= 90,3] [p= 90,2] mn. ([in RV. i-ix only n. ; in RV. x six times n. and thrice m. ; in later Sanskrit only m.]) aim , purpose (very often अर्थम् , अर्थेन , अर्थाय , and अर्थे ifc. or with gen. ” for the sake of , on account of , in behalf of , for “); substance , wealth , property , opulence , money; (hence in astron.) N. of the second mansion , the mansion of wealth (cf , धन) VarBr2S.; affair , concern (Ved. often acc. /अर्थम् with √ इ , or गम् , to go to one’s business , take up one’s work RV. &c ); sense , meaning , notion (cf. अर्थ-शब्दौandअर्थात् s.v. below and वेदतत्त्वा*र्थ-विद्)

Bharata artisanal competence in metals technologies is exemplified by Wootz (ukku) steel sword presented by Purushottama (Porus) to Alexander on the banks of Jhelum river and Delhi (Besnagar) or Kodachadri non-rusting iron pillars.

alexanderA painting in Steel Authority of India Institute, Ranchi.

kodachadriKodachadri temple, Karnataka and iron pillar. Culturally, smithy/forge was the temple of Ancient Bharata. kole.l ‘smithy, forge’ was also kole.l ‘temple’ a rebus expression repeatedly signified on Harappa Script Corpora points to the roots of weltanschauung of adhyatmika traditions of Bharata from ca. 8th millennium BCE. A priest of this ancient temple was shown on an exquisite statue of Mohenjo-daro with Harappa Script hieroglyphs (ca. 3rd millennium BCE) to signify that he is smelter and purifier (of smelted minerals). A dance-step and a woman with a wick-lamp signified on bronze statues are exemplars of the Bronze Age Revolution which impacted Bharatam Janam, ‘metalcaster folk’, an expression used by Viśvamitra in Rigveda (RV 3.53.12).

Significance of Harappa Script decipherment to explain the wealth of Bharatam ca 1 CE

It is a fact of great historical significance that Bharata accounted for 32.9% of World GDP in 1 CE.[i]

At the turn of the Common Era, Bharata was indeed a land of bahu-suvarnaka, riches of gold and metallurgical excellence as evidenced by the decipherment of Harappa Script.

This cultural continuity foundation built over millennia sets the tone and tenor for the History and Culture of Bharata.

angus[i] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_largest_historical_GDP Pace Angus Maddison’s work for OECD.

The challenge is to extend this bar-chart back in time by about 8 millennia and enquire into the sources of wealth (Global GDP) recorded in 1 CE.

An enquiry into the sources of the wealth of Bharata (India) in 1 CE takes us on a pilgrim’s journey upto the 8th millennium BCE, based on the recorded evidence of Veda texts validated by archaeological evidences mostly from 4th millenium BCE.

Economic History of Ancient India–Artha, ‘wealth’ of Vedic rāṣṭram

This thesis is organized in the following sections:

Section A. rāṣṭram, seafaring merchants, artificers

Section B. Earth as wealth, wealth of minerals, metals

Section C. śreṇi, economic institution to create wealth

Section D. śyena, Varāha, metaphors of 1) mineral, metals wealth and 2) earth as wealth: सोमःसंस्था brahma-somāraṇya

Section E. Work is worship as an economic dictum

This volume is a sequel to the successful decipherment of Harappa Script Corpora as metalwork catalogues. Rigveda which is the oldest document of the civilization of Bharata contains unambiguous indicators related to the idea of rāṣṭram which is, in effect, a pathway for wealth creation for the commonwealth of people, ensuring abhyudayam for all and environment including flora and fauna. While attempts have been made to reonstruct the Economic History of the World (pace Angus Maddison) from 1 CE, there have been no major efforts to rewrite the Economic History of the millennia Before Common Era, say, from the days of the Rigveda dated ca. 8th millennium BCE. This monograph is a preliminary attempt at building upon the idea of rāṣṭram as the movement of wealths across communities as commonwealths and at narrating historical evolution of śreṇi as a social corporate form. In this attempt, significant leads are provided by the decipherment of the Harappa Script Corpora; in particular, the unique ceramic stoneware responsibility badges with Harappa Script which describe the assignment of specific functions to participants in a guild. The treasurehouse of ancient texts of Bharata provide the literary framework to define the weltanschauung of the people of the rāṣṭram. Archaeological discoveries, sculptures and iconography help validate this framework chronologically in an extensive contact area of Hindu Veda civilization that travelled along a maritime Tin Route stretching from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel) through Eurasia, about two millennia before the dawn of the Silk Road.

Given the complex nature of the task, this volume is but a continuum of Harappa Script primer –Cryptography for metalwork trade (2016) and will continue to be a work in progress as multi-disciplinary researchers report their findings to enable us to narrate the History and Culture of Bharata.with fidelity. In a nutshell, this is an extraordinary history governed by the primordial value of dharma-dhamma as performance of one’s responsibilities for abhyudayam and nihśreyas—a veritable Pilgrim’s Progress in an enquiry from Being to Becoming, uniting the ātman with the paramātman. Economic history of Ancient Bharata is a story of artha in civilization – artha as defined in Kautilya’s Arthasastra: “The subsistence of mankind is termed artha, wealth; the earth which contains mankind is also termed artha, wealth; that science which treats of the means of acquiring and maintaining the earth is Arthasastra, Science of Polity.” (R. Shamasastry, tr., Kautilya’s Arthasastra, p. 607). The weltanschauung of Meluhha people who encrypted Harappa Script is expressed in a precise, unambiguous example of Harappa Script cipher: kole.l ‘temple’ rebus kole.l ‘smithy, forge’ (Kota language). This is an affirmation of a value system which governed the life-activities of Bharatam Janam that ‘Work is worship’. This is the principal lesson learnt from the Economic History of Ancient Bharata. Metalwork is one form of creating wealth of a rāṣṭram. अहं राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनां (RV 10.125) ātmā is devatā of the sukta (RV 10.125); Soma is ātmā of yajna. Creation of wealth is dharma and a positive affirmation of one’s life activity consistent with one’s proclivities and competence. ಕಾಯಕವೇ ಕೈಲಾಸ kAyakave kailAsa — Basava. The idiom means: work is worship. mēdhā also has the semantics of: ‘dhanam, wealth and yajna’.

Table of Contents

Section A. rāṣṭram, seafaring merchants, artificers

Idea of rāṣṭram

Identifying Harappans as Mleccha, Meluhha, Indo-European speakers

Excerpts from ancient texts explaining some select terms of lingua franca 

Wealth created by seafaring trade in Ancient Bharata

Annex. Catamarans built in Malabar coast compare with sewn boats of 19th cent.BCE Ain Sukhna, a Red sea port

Section B. Earth as wealth, wealth of minerals, metals

Agricultural wealth, cotton textiles, forest products

Material resources, fire-workers, ayas and Bronze Age wealth from metalwork

Preface: Mleccha and Chandas: ferryman and scholar

Semantics of mleccha derived from ancient texts

ayas Vedic gloss in hieroglyph modifiers of Indus script, indicators of semantics of soma as a metallurgical process

A Munda gloss for fish is ‘aya, ayo’. Read rebus: aya ‘iron’ (Gujarati) ayas ‘metal’ (Vedic)

Section C. śreṇi, economic institution to create wealth

śreṇi, corporate Hindu economic institution

Historical evolution of śreṇi as a social corporate form

Corporate organization of artisans and traders

Co-operation to acquire wealth combined with social ethic

Corporate laws comparable to laws of guilds or śreṇi in Bharata

Nature of self-realization linked to ethical behavior: dāna; datta ‘[humans], give’!

Framework of rules for ethical behavior

Guild Laws (śreṇi dharma)

Guild Structure

Fundamental duties of the Guilds

śreṇi dharma, or social capital, the missing element of economics

Embedding social ethic in capitalism and socialism

Dharma saṁjñā Corporate badges of Indus Script Corpora, ceramic (stoneware) bangles, seals, fillets

Ceramic stoneware responsibility badges with Harappa Script

Khetri copper belt

Anthropomorphs as Harappa Script hypertexts

Section D. śyena, Varāha, metaphors of 1) mineral, metals wealth and 2) earth as wealth: सोमःसंस्था brahma-somāraṇya

śyena, orthography, Sasanian iconography. Continued use of Indus Script hieroglyphs

Varāha’s caṣāla as Harappa Script hieroglyph metaphor records weltanschauung of Veda culture & wealth of Rāṣṭram

Sarasvati as vāk signifies Rāṣṭram

Chandogya in 8 chapters is Vedantic philosophy

Spectacular Vedic discoveries of Binjor (4MSR)

Binjor yupa inscription on Indus Script seal is यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम् सोमः संस्था

Binjor seal

Yupa inscriptions

Contents of Mulawarman Yupa Inscriptions
Bahusuvarnaka बहुसुवर्णक

Item 1: Mortals do not taste Soma

Item 2: माक्षिक, the fly, betrays Soma

Item 3: Reference to Soma in the dual and plural

सोमःसंस्था brahma-somāraṇya, principal source of wealth of Ancient Bharata

Notes on brahma-somāraṇya (AŚ.2.2.2)

What then are the etymology & semantics of ‘Elo! Elelo! He’lava, he’lava !!’?

Soma, wealth

Śreshtri ‘squirrel’ rebus: Śreshthin, seTh ‘guild-master’

Detail of terracotta bangle

A. Meluhha, Proto-Indo-European speakers & contributions to evolution of languages of Bharata sprachbund (language union, linguistic area

B. Wealth of Bharata Rāṣṭram, significant contributions to world GDP and early corporate forms of śrḗṇi (guilds)

Octagonal yupa, caṣāla, ‘snout of boar’, Skambha Sukta, lingodbhava

Skambha Sukta AV (X.7,8) is an ādhyātmikā excursus into ātman and link with paramātman 

Atharva Veda (X.7,8) — Skambha Suktam

Vālmiki Rāmāyana refers to the performance of Vājapeya

Binjor: eight-angled yupa in yajna kunda

Procedure for vājapeya soma yāga

Process of carburization of metal explained as a metaphor in Vedic text शत-पथ-ब्राह्मण

Sarasvati sculptural frieze on the caṣāla चषाल ‘snout of boar’

Section E. Work is worship as an economic dictum


Harappa Script data archives of wealth creation




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