Rama Setu: archaeological studies

‘No archaeologist has worked on the Ram Sethu’
October 11, 2007 | 17:54 IST

In a continuing series on the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project, we interview an archaeologist for his views.

We had earlier interviewed world-renowned tsunami expert Dr Tad S Murty and Dr Kalyanaraman, a researcher on the subject, geologist Dr V Badrinarayanan and mariner H Balakrishnan.

Before retiring as the Superintendent Archaeologist of the Chennai region, Archaeological Survey of India, Dr T Satyamurthy was the Director of Archaeology, government of Kerala. He spoke to Shobha Warrier.

The ASI affidavit to the Supreme Court said the Rama Sethu was not a man-made structure. As an archaeologist, do you agree with the affidavit?

I don’t know the details of the affidavit as I have not seen it. To my knowledge, no archaeologist has worked there. The National Institute of Ocean Technology �has done some underwater work. (Dr Badrinarayanan spoke about that work in his interview to rediff.com). But we have not done any work there.

You mean the archaeological department has not done any excavation work at the site?

So far, they have not done any work there. Some other reports prepared by others are available. Maybe ASI has based their affidavit on them. So, it may not be directly from our source but from some other source they might have gathered information. Without any base, they (ASI) would not have told the Supreme Court whatever they have said.

As an archaeologist, how do you describe Rama Sethu?

At present, I will not say anything but I feel the structure has to be thoroughly re-examined. It is true that some alignment is there. Earlier writers like Pliny in 100 AD had described the pathway in his writings. According to Pliny’s description, the water is shallow and the reef is visible. He says there is deep sea in between.

Portuguese and Dutch writers also have written that it was not possible to navigate that way because of the pathway.

In one of your essays, you have written that Romans made use of the pathway to trade with Ceylon (Sri Lanka) from the 1st to 3rd century.

Yes. In the earlier days, Romans could not come round Cape Comerin to come to east coast. They came via the west coast by land or if they were coming by sea, they had to go to some of the south East Asian countries and then come back. They could not come round because of the Sethu. This has been proved by the evidence collected by coins. Roman coins show that early trade was only through South East Asian countries, and not through the Gulf.

Whatever we find in the Mannar region in Sri Lanka is available in Thirunelveli also, and that shows there was trade between Ceylon and India. The trade was possible only because of the Sethu.

Roman and even Sangam age coins can be found in both places separated by the Sethu.

A study conducted by S K Sitramabalam of Sri Lanka found striking similarity between the urn burial site of Pomparippu, south of Mannar and such sites in Madurai, Thirunelveli etc. This shows there are a lot of cultural similarities between Ceylon and South India.�

How is it that even during the Iron Age, there was cultural oneness between Sri Lanka and south of India?

That is because of the shallowness of water in the Gulf of Mannar region only. The movement between these two countries was not a problem. That is why during the Iron Age to Megalithic period to pre-historic period to even the Chola period, there is no difference between these two regions culturally.

Whatever materials you find here in Thirunelveli, Adityanallur, etc, you find in Poomparippu in Sri Lanka also. All that is connected with the culture of the Chola period is seen there in Sri Lanka.

It signifies that even in Iron Age and early Historic age, there was movement and that is why there is cultural oneness between Sri Lanka and the south part of India.

You have mentioned about the two temples on either side of the strait; a Rama temple in south India and on the Sri Lankan side, a temple for Mandodari, the wife of Ravana. What do these temples signify?

According to Sri Lanka tradition, Mannar is Mandodari’s place. Here in Rameswaram, there is a temple for Lord Rama. According to Valmiki Ramayana also, there is a place called Aadi Sethu in Kodikal and it is believed that Rama wanted to build the bridge there. He found the nautical miles too long from there. Valmiki Ramayana says that when somebody suggested the Mannar area, he came and built the bridge there.

In history, how far can we go back and see references of Rama Sethu?

As far. 2,500 years before Christ. This we can decipher from the writings of Pliny and others. In the Greek writings also, you see mention of the pathway between India and Sri Lanka.

But to prove archaeologically, you have to do studies there. You can make a horizontal digging and find out.

Why were no archaeological excavations done in the area?

Archaeological excavations in the independent India are done only if there is a problem over there. We don’t go and dig anywhere.

Do you feel it is worth doing some underwater archaeological studies there?

It is worth doing studies both underwater and onshore also.

ASI had done a lot of excavations in Dwaraka to find out about temples.

That was also a problem oriented survey. That was done when S R Rao found some temples below the present level of the Dwaraka temple. So, he doubted it and did the project. Nobody has undertaken a similar project here. Now, it is the right time (to do so).

How long does it take for a proper study to be conducted in the area?

It will take only six months to do a study. It is not very difficult.�

Have the Sri Lankan authorities done any study?

In the last 25-30 years, research work has been completely hampered. So, they are also unable to comment.



4 Responses to Rama Setu: archaeological studies

  1. purushothaman says:

    some better input than what is being circulated by many; just I was trying to join teh two land masses Sri Lanka and India, by twisting Sri lanka, there is a small gap, perhaps would have sunken deep into sea

  2. suryanarayanan says:

    this was really a useful unbiassed interview. What i dont udersatnd if peole like Dr Satyamurthy ever suggested to their higher auhtorities thatshore and off shore excavation need be done; if none of them did since 60 years, it is really starnge and i am obliged towonder what kind of researchers were they? At least no thanks to this website, the enws will spread to the media and peole at higher level will soon launcha research project instead of bridge project.

  3. RP Shahi says:

    I just wonder why Govt requires so much of studies to judtify why HINDUs have age old long believe about this Ram Setu! Can they do such study on Demolished Structure in Ayodhya. I am not biased about any religion but I fel affended when an incompetent group of people who will sale their own mother country start debating about my faith.
    A politician has openly defied existence of Lord Rama because there is no scientific proof or historical data about him. I wonder what fact that person has about his great- great-grand father. If he has no data or documented scientific proof what does it make him- a son of unnown ancenstors-

    Will this same politician question the authenticity of other religion of his believe. I am sure he will not dare.
    As far as the archaelogical survey and findings are concerned, your mail above has given a clear view. I am also an engineer with about 37 yrs of experience in the scientific field and have seen my friends doing projects. I know what materials are being used or produced by our Govt added or sponsored research. The people in Govt can induce Sons to kill their fathers what to talk about Gods.

    These people should respect the faith of millions of Hindus and leave this project. I wonder who will be benifited with this cannal! I am sure People like Karunanidhi, Sonia Gandhi, Chidambaram and their likes- A common Indian who is some how managing to keep his sanity due to his long age old traditions and faith will never know the defference.

  4. Hari Prakash Latta says:

    Govt should try to establish the period in which Valmiki Ramayan was written. Once Govt finds the period, then they should give the answar of question that in that ancient period how valmiki came to know that there is a pathway between Sri Lanka and Rameshwar. Answar should be searched in the light of that period and distance from Valmiki”s place of residence. Without any base how Valmiki could writeen about this Setu. No body can say Valmiki was RSS man or BJP activist.

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