https://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/09/20/863 Rama Setu: bridge to past, to future (S. Kalyanaraman)
https://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/812 Rama Setu: in Tamil texts and on epigraphs (updates) Gazetteer preface exposes two faces of DMK chief; Kalaignar has lost the plot
Rama Setu: palaeoclimate studies suggested
— to investigate human-induced changes in glacial/holocene times
Dr. Anil K. Gupta, Prof. in Glogy and Geophysics in IIT Kharagpur has, in a personal communication, invited reference to two monographs in Current Science and suggested investigation by a team of sedimentologists, marine geologists and marine archaeologists to investigate human induced changes in the Rama Setu area. The paleoclimate of glacial time or Holocene periods can be reconstructed to determine if the ridge was exposed to construct a bridge between India and Srilanka. Here is his communication and abstracts of the monographs referred to.
Kalyanaraman Sept. 20, 2007
From: Prof. Anil K. Gupta
Sent: Monday, September 17, 2007 12:57 PM
It is certainly Ramsetu. The Government can invite impartial Sedimentologists, Marine Geologists, and Marine Archeologists to investigate human induced changes in the area. A few drill holes can tell about this. Even if it is not man made, it does not disqualify the belief that Lord Sri Ram did not travel to Sri Lanka through this route. During glacial time the ridge could be exposed and allow humans to walk through. The small water submerged patches, if remained, could have been filled by the people during that time. If anyone can tell me about the valid dates/years written in Ramayana during which time Lord Sri Rama traveled to Sri Lanka, I can tell (as a paleoclimate worker) what conditions were prevailing during that time.
Dr. Anil K. Gupta
Department of Geology & Geophysics
Indian Institute of Technology
KHARAGPUR – 721 302, WB
Rainwater harvesting as an adaptation to climate change by Deep Narayan Pandey*,#, Anil K. Gupta** and David M. Anderson† Current Science, Vol. 85, No. 1, 10 July 2003, pp. 46 to 59 (Full monograph can be downloaded at http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/gupta-et-al-current-science-2006/ )
Extreme climate events such as aridity, drought, flood, cyclone and stormy rainfall are expected to leave an impact on human society. They are also expected to generate widespread response to/ adapt and mitigate the sufferings associated with these extremes. Societal and cultural responses to prolonged drought include population dislocation, cultural separation, habitation abandonment, and societal collapse. A typical response to local aridity is the human migration to safer and productive areas. However, climate and culture can interact in numerous ways. We hypothesize that people may resort to modify dwelling environments by adapting new strategies to optimize the utility of available water by harvesting rain rather than migrating to newer areas. We review recent palaeoclimatological evidence for climate change during the Holocene, and match those data with archaeological and historical records to test our ‘climate change–rainwater harvest’ hypothesis. We find correlation between heightened historical human efforts for construction of rainwater harvesting structures across regions in response to abrupt climate fluctuations, like aridity and drought. Historical societal adaptations to climate fluctuations may provide insights on potential responses of modern societies to future climate change that has a bearing on water resources, food production and management of natural systems.
Adaptation and human migration, and evidence of agriculture coincident with changes in the Indian summer monsoon during the Holocene by
Anil K. Gupta1,*, David M. Anderson2, Deep N. Pandey3 and Ashok K. Singhvi4
Current Science, Vol. 90, No.8, 25 April 2006, pp. 1082 to 1090 (Full monograph can be downloaded at http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/pandey-et-al-current-science-2003/ )
Human societies have evolved through a complex system of climate and ecological interactions. Known records suggest intimate relationship of adaptations, mitigations and migrations to climate extremes leaving their impacts on human societies. The northwestern part of India provides such an example, where human civilizations flourished in the early Holocene along the major fluvial systems when the Indian summer (southwest) monsoon was much stronger and rainfall was higher over the Indian land mass. Summers were thus wetter, conducive to agriculture and ecodiversity. Changes in the early civilizations in the Indian subcontinent had a close relation to changes in the monsoon climate over the past 10,000 years. The summer monsoon has weakened over the last 7000 years since its peak intensification in the early Holocene (10,000–7000 cal yrs BP). Discrete intervals of dry phases in the summer monsoon are visible in the proxy record of the monsoon winds from the marine sediments of the Arabian Sea, which had significant impact on human settlements in South Asia. The strongest aridity in the Indian subcontinent and extended periods of droughts at ca 5000– 4000 cal yrs BP seems to have triggered eastward human migrations towards the Ganga plain. Other times of monsoon weakening during the Holocene are coincident with the initial development of ponds, reservoirs and other rainwater harvesting structures that may have served as an adaptation to climate change.