Rama Setu: archaeology

ravana1.jpgWorld’s largest painting depicting the building of Setubandhana as described in the Valmiki Ramayana is in Emerald Buddha temple of Bangkok, Thailand. Ramayana tradition is the heritage of India and many countries of the world including Thailand and Indonesia. Setubandhana is world heritage.

Emerald Buddha (Wat Phra Kaew) now kept on the Grand Palace grounds in Bangkok was created in India in 43 BCE by Nagasena in the city of Pataliputra. It was reportedly taken to Sri Lanka. In 457, King Anuruth of Burma got the pratima. The ship in which it was transported landed in Cambodia losing its way in a stormy voyage. Thai brought it to Ayutthaya from Cambodia. Emerald Buddha finally moved to Wat Phra Kaew on March 22, 1784 in the temple, the Ubosoth. See more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerald_Buddha

https://kalyan97.wordpress.com/2007/07/29/480/ Rama Setu: archaeology

It is well known that Rama Setu is referred to in sangam literature: in Akananooru, Purananooru and in many other texts in all bharatiya languages — in Sanskrit, in Prakrit, in Bauddham and Jaina texts and in scores of historical maps in South Asia Atlas ed. by Schwarzberg of Univ. of Chicago and in Survey of India maps, Netherland maps of 18th century (details below). Thousands of ‘setu’ coins with the word ‘setu’ written in Tamil script have been discovered in Jaffna (Yaazhpaanam) in Srilanka related to ‘ariyachakravarti’ coinage. Parantaka Chola of 10th century has left a copper plate inscription (Velanjeri plate) stating that he performed setutirtha and tulaabhaara at Setubandha.


There is evidence to show that people lived on the bridge in the 18th century and wood was growing on the bridge, just as people lived in Dhanushkodi until it was submerged in 1948 and 1964 cyclones. On Srilanka side, there are archaeological sites across Talaimannar a site called Mantai or Mantotta, recollecting the memory of Ravana’s sister Mandodari. There is a tirthasthana called Mahatittha there and also a S’ivalinga called Tiruketees’varam just as there is a S’ivalinga called Rames’varam. A third S’ivalinga was said to have been installed in the middle of the bridge according to Skanda Purana. This S’ivalinga mandiram has to be discovered.

Unlike the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, Rama Setu is always referred to as a ‘bridge’. ‘Setu’ itself means a man-made bund in all bharatiya languages, also called setubandha. The word bandha enters the English language as ‘bund’.

nalasetu.jpgisroimage1.jpgsculpture31.jpgsculpture21.jpgsculpture11.jpgprambanan.jpgPrambanan (Brahmavana, Indonesia). Sculptures of 9th-10th centuries venerating Rama Setu.

Stone steles from the Ramayana wall carvings at Prambanan Temple, Java, Indonesia (built during the ninth and tenth centuries Common Era). Classical Javanese dance performances of the Ramayana are held seasonally at Prambanan temple. A 2006 earthquake in Central Java, however, caused considerable damage to the World Heritage Site. •Devi Sita talking to Sri Hanuman •Vaanara Sena carrying stones, in their arms and on their heads, to build Rama Setu, followed by Sri Rama, carrying a sword. •Fish and other sea creatures handling stones from Rama’s bridge to Lanka, during the construction of Nala Setu (Rama Setu). •Source: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/2616 

Rama Setu: archaeological evidences for declaration as national monument and world heritage

The following documents (over 2000 pages) provide justification for declaring Rama Setu as a national monument, world heritage and underwater cultural heritage monument under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904 (Act No. VII of 1904), Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 and UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001).  I will be happy to provide any additional information and details including authoritative sources, e.g., Schwarzbert South Asia Atlas (Univ. of Chicago) and Map of Hindoostan and Mughal Empire (1788) in the Sarasvati Mahal Library, Thanjavur, as needed.

The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001) The Declaration supports cultural diversity, cultural rights and the role of culture in development, reaffirmed in Article 5 “Cultural rights as an enabling environment for cultural diversity”:
“Cultural rights are an integral part of human rights, which are universal, indivisible and inter-dependent. The flourishing of creative diversity requires the full implementation of cultural rights as defined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in Articles 13 and 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. All persons have therefore the right to express themselves and to create and disseminate their work in the language of their choice, and particularly in their mother tongue; all persons are entitled to quality education and training that fully respect their cultural identity; and all persons have the right to participate in the cultural life of their choice and conduct their own cultural practices, subject to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.” http://tinyurl.com/2f937m

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetu20-july2007/ Rama Setu: perspectives

scientific, oceanography (tsunami), historical, cartographic, literary, archaeological, heritage, geopolitical, society, environment, religious, cultural, project, nautical, legal


http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetu/ Rama Setu: 300 page book including scientific aspects considered in an intl. Seminar (Including an archaeological report by Satyamurty, Ex-Director, Archaeology, Kerala, on Mantai (Mantota) related to Mandodari and Tiruketeeswaram across Talaimannar, Srilanka as an archaeological site earlier than Roman times)


http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetu-tamil/Rama Setu in Tamil literature from Sangam day texts

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetu-valmiki/ Rama Setu: Valmiki Ramayanam

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetu-tulasidas-hindi/ Rama Setu: Tulsidas Ramacharita Maanas

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetuworldheritage/ Rama Setu world heritage




http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/countertocounterannexes2/ Documents, evidence submitted by petitions to Madras HC

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/annexures/ Evidences (about 1000 pages) submitted tto Madras High Court and cited by HC in their judgement declaring Rama Setu as national monument under 1958 Act. See 11 pages of Madras HC order at:


http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/response16june2007/ http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/govt-counter-and-points-to-refute-false-claims/ Company’s response

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetuinliteratureandancienttexts/ Rama Setu in ancient texts See also: http://bridgeofram.com/ https://kalyan97.wordpress.com http://hinduthought.googlepages.com

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/rama-setu-marine -bioreserve-and-setu-canal/ Marine bio-reserve

http://www.slideshare.net/kalyan97/ramasetu-thuglak-may-2007-1/ Interview in Tughlak


Friday, June 8, 2007 Greenpeace to internationalise Setu issue (Gulf of Mannar)

PodUniversal – Edition 10 – June 07
Greenpeace, an International organisation for environment protection will internationalise the Sethu Canal project issue. In an exclusive and fist podcast interview, Mr Sanjiv Gopal, Oceans Campaign Manager, Greenpeace India says that Sethu Samudram Canal project will not be viable and would damage the ecology. He also says that Greenpeace would internationalise the issue, if it is required. They would also take up with UNESCO for declaring the site as ‘ World heritage‘. Please listen to the full interview. (14 m 50 s)
If you want to download the file in wmv format (can be played in your windows media player), right click this link and save in your desktop. ( 6 mb) http://blip.tv/file/get/Prpoint-GreenpeaceIsToInternationaliseSetuCanalProject926.wmv

Tamil Podcast: http:// poduniversal.blogspot.com/2007/05/world-heritage-adams-bridge-ramar-sethu.html
If you want to download (Tamil version) the wmv file ( 11.6 mb) (can be played through windows media player)
Right click on this link and save into your computer
We had already released the English version of the same podcast, that can be accessed from
http:// poduniversal .blogspot.com/2007/05/adams-bridge-also-known-as-ramar-bridge.html

Kumudam webtv interview.

http://www. kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510 http://www.kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510&stream=2

http://www. kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510&stream=3

http://www. kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510&stream=4

http://www. kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510&stream=5

http://www. kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510&stream=6

http://www. kumudam.com/interviews.php?id=2&strid=1510&stream=7

International awareness programs:

http://www.sanatanadharmafoundation.com/images/audios/International%20Seminar%20on%20Ram%20Sethu%20May%2015%202007.mp3 May 12, 2007 Houston Radio interview

http://www.sanatanadharmafoundation.com/images/audios/Part%202%20-%20Experts%20Talk%20-%20Ram%20Sethu%20Bridge.mp3 May 4, 2007 Houston radio interview

http://www.sanatanadharmafoundation.com/images/audios/Part%201%20-%20Experts%20Talk%20-%20Ram%20Sethu%20Bridge.mp3 April 28, 2007 Houston radio interview

S. Kalyanaraman, Ph.D.,

Director, Sarasvati Research Centre,

Former Sr. Exec., Asian Development Bank,

3 Temple Avenue, Chennai 600015

Kalyan97@gmail.com 29 July 2007

7 Responses to Rama Setu: archaeology

  1. Gururaj says:

    One correction required in this para which states -‘On Srilanka side, there are archaeological sites across Talaimannar a site called Mantai or Mantotta, recollecting the memory of Ravana’s sister Mandodari.’

    Mandodari was Ravana’s wife, NOT his sister.

  2. Raiju Murugaanandan says:

    I read the abve article with great interest. Can you please cite examples as how SETHUBANDHA was referenced in Akananooru and Purananooru.

  3. Vijay Kumar Jain says:

    Highly Grateful to Dr. S.Kalyan Raman,
    to aware us about our Religious, Historical, Cultural Heritage of India, as well the World.

    I request you to kindly send complete details on RAMSETU RAKSHA MANCH, or inform the site, so that we could join you with our little step in your Devotional Prayer with our Karma.

    Vijay Jain.

  4. kkant says:

    we are shocked by setusamuddram project.Please continue this fight we all are with you

  5. Techno man says:

    Nice pics! thank you!

  6. jpsingh says:

    if europeans had not discovered and archologically unearthed evidecce then we would not have heard about pharoah.the parallel to ravana in hindu civilization.people of days learnt from moses and jesus and mohammad the concequences or power when it is viewed linearly.todays pharoah and ravana who dont have one but several heads are taking world to chaos cant/or dont want to see themselves in the mirror like snowhites mother /or like the naked emperor in kings magic clothes their nakedness as the biodiversity of world disappears/and climate that was stable for million years changes due to blind ignorance of the egoitic power holders mad with wealth earned by slaughtering innocent marine and wild lfe and anguishing humanity.they dont want to see ram or moses the saviours.who cares for ram and his legacy ,the campaigners of holy ramsetu sites.only people know the power of rams thought.the british library knows who organized exhibition on ramayana recently.but not whop fight for it for votes in india or who oppose it for greed and other ulterior motives or who want humanity forget about rael life characters who became legend in time.long live blood of humanity whose every drop sings of none but name of ram.moses,jesus and mohammad as sung by sufis and not the caliphs of baghdad who ultimatly turned out to be another pharoahs………

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